MANCH or MANCHA
A word in Hindi and related languages meaning “forum” or “platform”.
An informal network of bourgeois political economists in the early 19th century centered in the big industrial city of Manchester, England. Its leaders were Richard Cobden and John Bright. It strongly favored free trade and the abolition of all laws restricting or regulating capitalism, and the Corn Laws in particular. Modern laissez-faire and neoliberal ideologies are a continuation of this sort of ultra-bourgeois thinking.
See also: MUKDEN INCIDENT
“‘Manchukuo’ was the name given by Japanese imperialism to the puppet
regime it set up after invading and occupying Liaoning, Kirin and Heilungkiang Provinces
in northeast China in 1931.
“On September 18, 1931, Japan launched a large-scale attack on northeast China. The traitorous Chiang Kai-shek clique followed a policy of non-resistance. Much of Liaoning, Kirin and Heilungkiang Provinces came under Japanese occupation.
“To tighten its rule over northeast China, Japanese imperialism concocted a so-called ‘Manchukuo’ in Changchun on February 3, 1932 and installed Pu Yi, the last emperor of the Ching Dynasty, as ‘ruler.’ In March 1934, ‘Manchukuo’ was renamed ‘Manchurian empire.’
“After overrunning northeast China, the Japanese imperialists, flaunting the banner of ‘Manchukuo,’ savagely slaughtered Chinese patriots and plundered China of its rich resources. Led by the Chinese Communist Party and the Anti-Japanese United Army, the people of northeast China put up courageous resistance by waging a guerrilla war. In 1945, the Chinese people’s War of Resistance Against Japan was crowned with victory and the so-called ‘Manchukuo’ was swept into the dust-bin of history.” —Note in Peking Review, #47, Nov. 18, 1977, p. 27.
An American Cold War propaganda novel, and then movie, which portrayed an ordinary U.S. soldier who was captured by the “evil Chinese” during the Korean War, and who was then “brainwashed” and “re-programmed” to become an assassin when he was released and returned home to the U.S. The ironic thing is that although China was not attempting to do any such thing, it was the American CIA which was actually attempting to learn how to do this, especially with its quarter-century long secret program code-named MKULTRA which began in 1953. However, it has never yet been possible for anybody—even the CIA—to “brainwash” anyone in this science fiction kind of way, although they destroyed a lot of people’s brains and lives in the attempt to figure out how to do so.
“The Manchurian Candidate, the 1959 bestselling thriller by Richard
Condon that was later adapted for the screen, dramatized this concept of a flesh-and-blood
robot, a man so deeply programmed that he could be turned into a cold-blooded assassin. It
was a paranoid fantasy that had its roots in the Korean War, that confusing debacle in a
remote Asian land that would continue to haunt the American public until another Asian
misadventure came along [the Vietnam War]. During the war, three dozen captured American
pilots confessed to dropping biological weapons containing anthrax, cholera, bubonic plague,
and other toxins on North Korea and China. The charges were hotly denied by the U.S.
government [though they were actually true, as was proven later by an international
committee of inquiry—Ed.], and when the airmen returned home after the war, they retracted
their charges—under the threat of being tried for treason—alleging that they had been
subjected to brainwashing by their Communist captors.
“The Korean War ‘brainwashing’ story worked its way deeply into America’s dream state, through the aggressive promotional efforts of CIA-sponsored experts like Edward Hunter, who claimed to have coined the term. Writing bestselling books on the alleged Communist technique and testfying dramatically before Congress, Hunter ‘essentially modernized the idea of demonic possession,’ in the words of one observer. The self-described ‘propaganda specialist’ described how all American boys fell victim to an insidious combination of Asian mesmerism and Soviet torture science, which turned each captured pilot into a ‘living puppet—a human robot ... with new beliefs and new thought processes inserted into a captive body.’
“In the end, the Korean brainwashing story itself—the seedbed of so much creeping, Cold War fantasy—turned out to be largely fictitious. [CIA director Allen] Dulles made much of it in his Hot Springs speech, invoking in outraged tones the image of ‘American boys’ being forced to betray their own country and ‘make open confessions—fake from beginning to end’ about how they had waged germ warfare on China and North Korea. But a study later commissioned by Dulles himself—conducted by two prominent Cornell Medical Center neurologists, including Harold Wolff, a friend of the CIA director—largely debunked the brainwash panic. They rejected reports that the Communists were using esoteric mind control techniques, insisting that there was no evidence of drugs or hypnosis or any involvment by psychiatrists and scientists in the Soviet or Chinese interrogation procedures.” —David Talbot, Devil’s Chessboard: Allen Dulles, the CIA, and the Rise of America’s Secret Government (2015), pp. 288-290.
[Talbot is an anti-communist liberal journalist. And actually this CIA “brainwashing” claim against China was not just “largely fictitious”, as he states here—it was entirely fictitious. If there was any actual brainwashing of the American pilots who confessed while captive in China it was what was done to them by the U.S. government once they came home, in order to force them to recant what they had earlier admitted they had really done. —Ed.]
MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY
See: COMMUNIST MANIFESTO
The traits of the character Manilov, who was a sentimental landowner, in Gogol’s Dead Souls. Gogol portrayed him as an idle dreamer and an empty, lazy chatterbox. Lenin frequently used this term to criticize the same characteristics in some of those within the socialist movement.
MANUFACTURING — In General and Worldwide
To manufacture something originally meant to make it by hand (from the Latin words for ‘hand’ and ‘to make’). However, tools have always been employed in the process and from the start of the Industrial Revolution machines have been employed in manufacturing in an ever more extensive and important way. Now, in the early 21st century, we are beginning to see some manufacturing being done entirely by machine without any direct human labor involved at all. This trend will certainly continue and become much more common, with the further development of automation and artificial intelligence.
For a few centuries the number of manufacturing jobs increased tremendously—even though manufacturing was constantly becoming more efficient. However, for some decades now the number of manufacturing jobs in the world has been declining, and ever more rapidly so. In 2003 there were still around 163 million manufacturing jobs in the world, but by 2040 there is expected to be only a few million such jobs left. [Jeremy Rifkin, The Zero Marginal Cost Society (2014), p. 125.]
MANUFACTURING — U.S.
Manufacturing has been declining overall in the U.S. for decades, and this rate of decline has increased in the new millennium (despite some short-term secondary ups and downs). The Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages showed there were 398,887 private manufacturing establishments in the U.S. in the first quarter of 2001. By the end of 2010, that number had declined to 342,647, a drop of 56,240 facilities. In 2010 alone, 8,660 factories closed down.
Manufacturing jobs in the U.S. have declined much more rapidly, because of automation and productivity improvements. This is shown in the graph at the right, which indicates that the number of manufacturing jobs has now dropped nearly to the level at the end of the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Not only have manufacturing jobs themselves been dropping very fast in recent decades, but this is also leading to the disappearance of huge numbers of other jobs in what was once thriving manufacturing communities, and to the serious decline in wages and other compensation for workers who still have jobs in the surrounding areas. Additional signs of social decay in these areas, such as the opioid addiction crisis rampant in 2018, also seem to be at least partially correlated with the continued collapse of manufacturing jobs. [“The Transformation of Manufacturing and the Decline in U.S. Employment”, by Kerwin Kofi Charles, et al., NBER Working Paper 24468, March 2018.]
See also: INNOVATION-ONLY MODEL
The MANY AND THE FEW
“Rise like lions after slumber
In unvanquishable number —
Shake your chains to earth like dew
Which in sleep has fallen on you —
Ye are many — they are few.”
—Percy Bysshe Shelley, “The Mask of Anarchy”, last stanza.
This poem was written on the occasion of the massacre carried out
by the British Government at Peterloo, Manchester in 1819.
MANY WORLDS THEORY (of Quantum Mechanics)
Another bizarre idealist philosophical conception of quantum mechanics that claims that every time a quantum particle event occurs (which is umpteen quintillion times per second) a separate new “parallel universe” is formed! This absurd theory was cooked up by the physicist Hugh Everett III, and amazingly, there are some people who take it seriously.
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