FUERZAS ARMADAS REVOLUCIONARIAS DE COLOMBIA—EJÉRCITO DEL PUEBLO
The theory of mind which says that mental processes are functions, actions, aspects or characteristics of the brain (or an equivalent artificial entity such as a very advanced computer).
The brain is an extremely complex organ in which there are constant internal changes, many the result of input from the sense organs. These specific changes involve thousands, millions, or even billions of neural brain cells and their varying interconnections and the varying strength of these interconnections. Thus when a human being sees or hears some danger, such as an attacking wild animal, there are a vast number of tiny changes going on in the brain. In conscious beings there need to be systems which summarize all these myriads of tiny brain changes in a high-level way, which will allow the animal to act appropriately and to survive. Mentalistic terms, such as recognition, remembering, fearing, thinking, hoping, wanting and so forth are the names we give to these high-level functional summaries of the internal activities of the brain. Moreover, at different points, the brain will be in different functional states, or engaged in different overall processes. Many of these overall states are also given mentalistic names, such as anxiety, fear, calm, happiness, thought, and so forth. Then too, aspects of the external world (the world external to the brain) will need to be given high-level summary descriptions, such as hardness or softness, sizes, quantity, color, shape and many other categorizations. The complete collection of all these high-level summations of the functioning of the brain, of its internal states, and of our mental perceptions of the world around us, are what we call the mind.
Functionalism is implicitly materialist in its basic conceptions, focusing as it does on how the mind is simply a set of high-level summary characteristics of the functioning brain. However, some idealist psychologists (such as Jerry Fodor) have put forward the quite absurd notion that the supposed “minds” of gods, ghosts or other disembodied “beings”, which they imagine could exist, might also be understood in sort of a functionalist way. [For a brief discussion of this see: Scott Harrison, “On the Analogy Between Mind/Brian and Software/Hardware” (1992), section 17, online at: http://www.massline.org/Philosophy/ScottH/mindsoft.htm] The Marxist dialectical materialist theory of the mind is, however, definitely a solidly materialist form of functionalism.
See also: MIND-BODY PROBLEM, and Philosophical doggerel about functionalism.
“Surely no one who is cognizant of the facts of the case, nowadays,
doubts that the roots of psychology lie in the physiology of the nervous system.”
[And he went on to say that the operations of the mind] “are functions of the
brain”. —Thomas Henry Huxley (“Darwin’s Bulldog”), in his book Hume, His Life
and Philosophy, p. 80. Quoted in George Plekhanov, Fundamental Problems of
Marxism (NY: International, 1969), p. 34.
[Huxley’s comment here may be the origin of the concept of functionalism in psychology. Plekhanov notes that these words of Huxley express the same point of view as that of Feuerbach, but that Huxley then went on to somewhat spoil this by combining these ideas with Hume’s idealist skepticism. —Ed.]
“The mind is a function of the brain.” —Student’s Library: Psychology (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1986), p. 25.
FUNDAMENTAL CONTRADICTION OF CAPITALISM
[To be added... ]
FUNDAMENTAL CONTRADICTIONS IN THE WORLD
See: WORLD CONTRADICTIONS (Fundamental)
FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF REVOLUTION
As used by Lenin, this refers to the necessary conditions which must exist for there to be a successful social revolution in the capitalist era.
“The fundamental law of revolution, which has been confirmed by all revolutions and especially by all three Russian revolutions in the twentieth century, is as follows: for a revolution to take place it is not enough for the exploited and oppressed masses to realize the impossibility of living in the old way, and demand changes; for a revolution to take place it is essential that the exploiters should not be able to live and rule in the old way. It is only when the ‘lower classes’ do not want to live in the old way and the ‘upper classes’ cannot carry on in the old way that the revolution can triumph. This truth can be expressed in other words: revolution is impossible without a nation-wide crisis (affecting both the exploited and the exploiters). It follows that, for a revolution to take place, it is essential, first, that a majority of the workers (or at least a majority of the class-conscious, thinking, and politically active workers) should fully realize that revolution is necessary, and that they should be prepared to die for it; second, that the ruling classes should be going through a governmental crisis, which draws even the most backward masses into politics (symptomatic of any genuine revolution is a rapid, tenfold and even hundredfold increase in the size of the working and oppressed masses—hitherto apathetic—who are capable of waging the political struggle), weakens the government, and makes it possible for the revolutionaries to rapidly overthrow it.” —Lenin, “‘Left-Wing’ Communism—An Infantile Disorder” (April-May, 1920), LCW 31:84-85.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF ETHICS (In Classless Society)
[To be added...]
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF ETHICS (In Class Society)
[To be added...]
1. [In general:] A trend, movement or attitude which stresses strict and literal adherence to some original set of basic principles and which will therefore accept no alterations whatsoever to those original beliefs no matter what good reasons and arguments are presented. In other words, fundamentalism is one major type of extreme dogmatism.
2. [Within Protestant Christianity:] (Also called Evangelical Protestantism.) A movement and doctrine, which developed originally mostly in the 20th century, which rejects most of the concessions that Christianity has been forced to make over the centuries to science and to the more modern ways of thinking (such as acceptance of evolution and having equality between men and women) and seeks to return to the literal interpretation of the Bible, with all its primitive and reactionary conceptions and biases. This form of Christian fundamentalism has been especially rampant in the U.S., though even here it is now beginning to decline somewhat. (See: RELIGION—Decline Of In The U.S.) Christian fundamentalism, like other religious fundamentalisms, often has strong tendencies toward fascism.
3. Similar anti-scientific and dogmatic trends within other religions, such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism or Buddhism. The trend toward Islamic fundamentalism has been fostered in part by the development of Political Islam. This is a reaction against the dismal failure of both moderate Islamic groups and secular groups in Islamic countries to effectively struggle against foreign imperialism. While it is understandable from a political perspective why such Islamic fundamentalist trends have developed, their reactionary characteristics (such as intensified oppression of women, murderous attacks on people of other religions, and opposition to a scientific world view) will also lead to their own total failure in the end.
See: FENG YU-LAN
An Italian school of bourgeois literature and then of “modern” abstract painting, starting around 1909, that glorified the machine age, modern capitalist society, patriotism, violence and war. Most of those involved with it were supportive of the rising fascist trend in Italy, and from 1922 on Futurism became part of the official fascist cultural offensive. Futurism also had influence internationally, and even in the early Soviet Union [see CONSTRUCTIVISM], though there were attempts there to divorce it from fascist ideology and connect it to proletarian ideology. Even so, Futurism was almost always most reflective of bourgeois cultural interests and ideology.
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